By occasion, I find the following draft by Prof. Peter Sestoft:
Numeric Performance in C, C# and Java
He implemented several typical numerical programs in C, C# and Java, and tested their running time.
The conclusion in the paper is that managed code is also performant! Read the paper for the details.
Prof. Sestoft is an expert in compiler design and compiler writing. The draft also contains the generated byte code with his annotations. Enjoy!
Just a note:
Although the C code in the paper is native, it does not take the advantage of the modern CPU design. A fully optimized implementation, which is very hard for normal programmers to write, is faster than the native code. This is why Matlab/Numpy's matrix multiplication is faster than your C code. Matlab uses Intel MKL optimized implementation.